Patents were developed to encourage openness in the innovation space and to protect inventors. Startups are increasingly facing legal pressure from “patent trolls” — companies that take advantage of a broken software patent system, and operate by collecting fees on software patent licenses, as opposed to making products and contributing to growth and technological innovation. In 2011 alone, U.S. businesses were subjected to $29 billion in direct costs from patent infringement claims filed by “non-practicing entities”. On copyright, new distribution technologies are making it easier for anyone to reach a broad audience, so the law should allow these new technologies and their creators to succeed.